What are the risk factors which cannot (YET !) be influenced?
Risks you cannot avoid !!
1.) Genetics:- The “peak bone mass” and the subsequent later loss of bone are genetically programmed. Thus, a family history of osteoporotic fracture is a powerful indicator that genetic factors play a role in the development of osteoporosis. There are certain genetic syndromes which can be detected on a careful physical examination (e.g. Turners syndrome, Osteoporosis Imperfecta etc.)
2.) Race :- Caucasian and Scandinavian residents are more prone to osteoporosis.
3.) Sex and Age:- Till the age of 30-35, both bone formation and bone resorption are balanced. Thereafter, the genetically determined bone loss sets in – greater in women than men. With the onset of menopause in women(around 45-50 years) the oestrogen levels fall, thus increasing the rate of osteoporosis and fractures. In men, the risk of fractures increases steadily after 75 years.
4.) Previous fractures:- A single spontaneous vertebral fracture raises the risk of further vertebral fractures by a factor of 5.
5.) Pregnancy and lactation:- In general, there is a transient decrease in bone density during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Despite an increase in sex hormones during pregnancy causing an increased uptake of calcium from the gastrointestinal tract, an inadequate diet will directly drain the skeleton. This problem shall be compounded in case of multiple pregnancies, prolonged lactations, poor nutrition and no calcium and Vit D3 supplements during these periods. The weeks of bed rest with every pregnancy further aggravates osteoporosis.