What are the causes of stress incontinence?
Stress incontinence is commonly seen in middle-aged females and accounts for most cases of incontinence. It is multifactorial and in a significant percentage of cases is mixed, i.e. coexists with urgency or urge incontinence. Main contributing causes to stress incontinence are-lax pelvic muscles due to difficult or multiple childbirths, prolapse of uterus, postmenopausal status, poor urethral support and poor urethral sphincter function.
There are thus two main types of defects in a female with stress urinary incontinence :
1.) Genuine stress incontinence with descent of urethra and
2.) Intrinsic sphincter deficiency.
Most cases have a variable combination of these defects.